Historical Influences of Mathematics (Part 2 Of 3)

Three factors—the needs of the subject, the child, and the society—have influenced what mathematics is to be taught in schools. Many people think that “math is math” and never changes. This three-part series briefly discusses these three factors and paints a different picture: mathematics is an ever-changing subject.

We have already discussed the Needs of the Subject in the previous blog. In this second part, we discuss-

Needs of the Child

The mathematics curriculum has been influenced by beliefs and knowledge about how children learn and, ultimately, about how they should be taught. Before the early years of the twentieth century, mathematics was taught to train “mental faculties” or provide “mental discipline.” Struggling with mathematical procedures was thought to exercise the mind (like muscles are exercised), helping children’s brains work more effectively. Around the turn of the twentieth century, “mental discipline” was replaced by connectionism, the belief that learning established bonds, or connections, between a stimulus and responses. This led teachers to the endless use of drills aimed at establishing important mathematical connections.

In the 1920s, the Progressive movement advocated incidental learning, reflecting the belief that children would learn as much arithmetic as they needed and would learn it better if it was not systematically taught. The teacher’s role was to take advantage of situations when they occurred naturally as well as to create situations in which arithmetic would arise.

During the late 1920s, the Committee of Seven, a committee of school superintendents and principals from midwestern cities, surveyed pupils to find out when they mastered various topics. Based on that survey, the committee recommended teaching mathematics topics according to students’ mental age. For example, subtraction facts under 10 were to be taught to children with a mental age of 6 years 7 months and facts over 10 at 7 years 8 months; subtraction with borrowing or carrying was to be taught at 8 years 9 months. The recommendations of the Committee of Seven had a strong impact on the sequencing of the curriculum for years afterward.

Another change in thinking occurred in the mid-1930s, under the influence of field theory, or Gestalt theory. A 1954 article by William A. Brownell (2006), a prominent mathematics education researcher, showed the benefits of encouraging insight and the understanding of relationships, structures, patterns, interpretations, and principles. His research contributed to an increased focus on learning as a process that led to meaning and understanding. The value of drill was acknowledged, but it was given less importance than understanding; drill was no longer the major means of providing instruction.

The relative importance of drill and understanding is still debated today. In this debate, people often treat understanding and learning skills as if they are opposites, but this is not the case. The drill is necessary to build speed and accuracy and to make skills automatic. But equally clearly, you need to know why as well as how. Both skills and understanding must be developed, and they can be developed together with the help of International Maths Challenge sample questions.

Changes in the field of psychology have continued to affect education. During the second half of the twentieth century, educators came to understand that the developmental level of the child is a major factor in determining the sequence of the curriculum. Topics cannot be taught until children are developmentally ready to learn them. Or, from another point of view, topics must be taught in such a way that children at a given developmental level are ready to learn them.

Research has provided increasing evidence that children construct their own knowledge. In so doing, they make sense of the mathematics and feel that they can tackle new problems. Thus, helping children learn mathematics means being aware of how children have constructed mathematics from their experiences both in and out of school.

End Note

As we have explored, a child’s journey through mathematics is deeply intertwined with their cognitive development, critical thinking skills, and overall academic success. By addressing their individual needs, providing appropriate support, and fostering a positive learning environment, we lay the foundation for a lifelong appreciation and understanding of mathematics. But what about the broader context? How does mathematics serve society at large, and what influences has it made in history? In our next blog, we will delve into these questions, examining the societal needs in mathematics and its profound impact on the course of human history.

Historical Influences of Mathematics (Part 1/3)

Three factors—the needs of the subject, the child, and the society—have influenced what mathematics is to be taught in schools. Many people think that “math is math” and never changes. This three-part series briefly discusses these three factors and paints a different picture: mathematics is an ever-changing subject.

In the first part, we discuss-

Needs of the Subject

The nature of mathematics helps determine what is taught and when it is taught in elementary grades. For example, number work begins with whole numbers, then fractions and decimals. Length is studied before area. Such seemingly natural sequences are the result of long years of curricular evolution. This process has involved much analysis of what constitutes a progression from easy to difficult, based in part on what is deemed necessary at one level to develop ideas at later levels. Once a curriculum is in place for a long time, however, people tend to consider it the only proper sequence. Thus, omitting a topic or changing the sequence of issues often involves a struggle for acceptance. However, research shows that all students do not always learn in the sequence that has been ingrained in our curriculum.

Sometimes, the process of change is the result of an event, such as when the Soviet Union sent the first Sputnik into orbit. The shock of this evidence of another country’s technological superiority sped curriculum change in the United States. The “new math” of the 1950s and 1960s was the result, and millions of dollars were channeled into mathematics and science education to strengthen school programs. Mathematicians became integrally involved. Because of their interests and the perceived weaknesses of previous curricula, they developed curricula based on the needs of the subject. The emphasis shifted from social usefulness to such unifying themes as the structure of mathematics, operations and their inverses, systems of notation, properties of numbers, and set language. New content was added at the elementary school level, and other topics were introduced at earlier grade levels.

Mathematics continues to change; new mathematics is created, and new uses of mathematics are discovered. As part of this change, technology has made some mathematics obsolete and has opened the door for other mathematics to be accessible to students. Think about all the mathematics you learned in elementary school. How much of this can be done on a simple calculator? What mathematics is now important because of the technology available today?

As mathematical research progresses and new theories and applications emerge, the curriculum must adapt to incorporate these advancements. For example, the development of computer science has introduced concepts such as algorithms and computational thinking into mathematics education. These topics were not traditionally part of the elementary curriculum but have become essential due to their relevance in today’s technology-driven world. Additionally, as interdisciplinary fields like data science and quantitative biology grow, there is a pressing need to equip students with skills in statistics, probability, and data analysis from an early age, and here, the International Maths Challenge is playing a crucial role. This integration ensures that students are prepared for future academic and career opportunities that increasingly rely on mathematical literacy. Furthermore, globalization and the interconnected nature of modern societies require students to understand complex systems and patterns, necessitating the introduction of topics such as systems theory and network analysis. Consequently, the curriculum evolves not only to preserve the integrity and progression of mathematical concepts but also to reflect the dynamic and ever-expanding landscape of mathematical applications in the real world.

End Note

In the next blog, we will move towards the second factor: understanding the need for mathematics in a child’s education can set a foundation for problem-solving, logical thinking, and even everyday decision-making. In the following blog, we will delve into why mathematics is not just a subject but a vital tool for a child’s overall development and future success. Stay tuned for further updates!

Enhancing Mathematics Education Through Effective Feedback

Feedback plays a vital role in mathematics education, guiding students toward deeper understanding and fostering a supportive learning environment. This article delves into the importance of specific and actionable feedback in mathematics education and explores strategies for both giving and receiving feedback effectively.

Understanding Feedback:

In mathematics education, feedback transcends mere praise or criticism—it is a nuanced tool for academic growth. Effective feedback should be clear, and concise, and provide guidance for improvement. It should highlight students’ strengths, address any misunderstandings, and offer actionable steps for progress.

Key Components of Effective Feedback:

Specificity: Feedback should pinpoint areas for improvement and clarify the path to success. Students need to know precisely what they need to do to enhance their understanding.

Actionability: Feedback should be actionable, outlining steps for students to move forward. This empowers students to take ownership of their learning journey.

Importance of Feedback:

Feedback serves multiple critical purposes in mathematics education:

Promoting Learning: It catalyzes academic growth by guiding students towards deeper understanding and mastery.

Building Motivation: Constructive feedback inspires students to strive for excellence and fosters a growth mindset.

Fostering Relationships: Feedback provides an opportunity for educators to connect with students on a deeper level, building trust and rapport.

The Human Element: Empathy and Trust:

Effective feedback is rooted in empathy and trust. Creating a safe and supportive learning environment is essential for feedback to be received positively. Teachers should approach feedback with empathy, avoiding emotional reactions and prioritizing the emotional well-being of their students.

Integrating Feedback into Planning:

When planning lessons, educators should:

Set Clear Goals: Define learning objectives and success criteria to guide student progress.

Anticipate Misconceptions: Be prepared to address common misunderstandings and provide targeted support.

Establish Trust: Build a culture of trust and openness in the classroom to facilitate effective feedback exchanges.

Feedback Goes Both Ways:

Teachers should be open to receiving feedback from students. Seeking feedback encourages student engagement and provides valuable insights for improving teaching practices. Additionally, teachers can infer feedback by observing students’ understanding and addressing any gaps in comprehension proactively.


Feedback is a cornerstone of effective mathematics education, fostering academic growth and cultivating a supportive learning environment. By prioritizing specificity, actionability, empathy, and trust, educators can create a feedback-rich classroom where every student has the opportunity to excel in mathematics.

Importance of Maths Olympiad for Your Child’s Future

Mathematics is a significant aspect of developing technological advancements in children. Understanding the logic and concept of Math is important. And so is executing them in many useful areas. To participate and prepare for the International Maths Olympiads, it is essential to study mathematics comprehensively. Math preparation will help your child handle all academic career requirements.

The International Mathematical Challenge allows your child to upskill and understand the maths competition level that is taught in the classroom. For your child’s safe and robust future, as a parent, you must encourage them to participate in the International Maths Olympiad competition. Click here to register today.

Participating in international math Olympiads can benefit a child’s future. Some of the most important benefits of participating in math Olympiads include:

Improving Problem-Solving Skills: Math Olympiads involve solving complex and challenging math problems. This helps children develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, which are important for success in many fields.

Enhancing Mathematical Knowledge: Participating in math Olympiads helps children learn new mathematical concepts and ideas and strengthens their existing knowledge.

Building Confidence: Solving challenging math problems can be difficult, but participating in math Olympiads helps children build confidence in their abilities to solve difficult problems.

Boosting Academic Performance: Participation in math Olympiads can improve academic performance in mathematics and other subjects.

Opportunities for Scholarships: High-performing students in math Olympiads may be eligible for scholarships and other academic opportunities.

Exposure to New Cultures: Math Olympiads are often international events, giving children the opportunity to meet and interact with students from different countries and cultures.


Participating in math Olympiads can help children develop valuable skills and knowledge, build confidence, improve academic performance, and open up new opportunities for scholarships and international exposure.

Can Math Help Students Become Better Engineers?

Mathematics and engineering go hand in hand. Mathematics is an essential tool for engineers and plays a crucial role in helping students become better engineers. In this article, we will explore how math helps students become better engineers.

Understanding and Applying Principles:

Engineering is all about applying scientific principles to solve real-world problems. Mathematics is the language of science, and without it, engineers would not be able to understand the fundamental principles that govern the world around us. By studying math, students learn how to analyze and solve complex problems, which is a critical skill for any engineer. Moreover, math helps students understand the fundamental concepts of physics, which is essential to many engineering fields.

Analyzing and Solving Problems:

Engineers are problem solvers, and math is an essential tool for problem-solving. Math helps students develop critical thinking skills and teaches them how to analyze and solve problems systematically. Engineers use mathematical concepts to create models, analyze data, and make predictions. These models and predictions help engineers design and build products that meet specific needs and requirements. One standard approach to building your maths skills is by participating in Olympiads such as the International Maths Olympiad Challenge.

Design and Optimization:

Designing and optimizing systems is another essential part of engineering. Math plays a critical role in helping engineers design and optimize systems. Mathematical models help engineers simulate and optimize systems to ensure that they meet specific requirements. By understanding mathematical concepts like calculus, optimization, and linear algebra, students can learn how to design and optimize complex systems.


Engineers must be able to communicate complex technical concepts to non-technical stakeholders. Math helps students develop this skill by teaching them how to use graphs, charts, and other visual aids to communicate complex data and concepts. By using math to present data and findings, engineers can help non-technical stakeholders understand the technical aspects of their work.

Mathematics is an essential tool for engineers. By studying math, students can develop critical thinking skills, learn how to solve complex problems, and design and optimize systems. Moreover, math helps students communicate complex technical concepts to non-technical stakeholders, an essential skill for any engineer. Therefore, it is important for engineering students to have a strong foundation in mathematics. By doing so, they can become better engineers and contribute to solving the world’s complex problems.

Mastery Learning Vs Performance-Oriented Learning, and Why Should Teachers Care?

Generally, the occurrence of students asking this question increases with growing age. Primary students know inside out that exams are very important. Brilliant middle school students consider a connection between their test results and semester mark sheets. Ultimately, upon graduation from secondary school, students have comprehended that the totality of their learning has less value than their results in the final exams.

Performance-Oriented Learning

Exam enthusiasm is an indication of performance-oriented learning, and it is intrinsic to our recent education management that needs standards-based reporting of student results. This focuses on performance apart from the method of learning and requests comparison of procurement amongst peers.

The focus for performance-aligned students is showing their capabilities. Fascinatingly, this leads to an affection of fixed mindset characteristics such as the ignorance of challenging tasks because of fear of failure and being intimidated by the success of other students.

Mastery-Oriented Learning

Mastery learning putting down a focus on students developing their competence. Goals are pliably positioned far away from reach, pushing regular growth. The phrase “how can this be even better?” changes the concept of “good enough”. Not to be bewildered with perfectionism, a mastery approach to learning encourages development mindset qualities such as determination, hard work, and facing challenges.

Most forms of mastery learning nowadays can be discovered in the work of Benjamin Bloom in the late 1960s. Bloom saw the important elements of one-to-one teaching that take to effective benefits over group-based classrooms and inspects conveyable instructional plans. Eventually, formative assessment was defined in the circumstances of teaching and learning as a major component for tracking student performance.

So where does mastery learning position in today’s classroom? The idea of formative assessment is frequent, as are posters and discussions encouraging a growth mindset. One significant missing element is making sure that students have a deep knowledge of concepts before moving to the next.

Shifting the Needle

With the growing possibilities offered by Edtech organizations, many are beginning to look to a tech-based solution like International Maths Olympiad Challenge to provide individualized learning possibilities and prepare for the maths Olympiad. The appropriate platform can offer personalized formative assessment and maths learning opportunities.

But we should take a careful viewpoint to utilize technology as a key solution. History shows us that implementing the principles of mastery learning in part restricts potential gains. Despite assessment plans, teachers will also have to promote a mastery-orientated learning approach in their classrooms meticulously. Some strategies are:

  • Giving chances for student agency
  • Encouraging learning from flaws
  • Supporting individual growth with an effective response
  • Overlooking comparing students and track performance

We think teaching students how to learn is far more necessary than teaching them what to learn.

Preparation Tips for International Mathematics Olympiad

International Maths Challenge, or IMC, is a top-level competitive exam curated for primary and secondary school students from across the world. To participate in the international maths Olympiad, students must prepare rigidly and develop their in-depth understanding of each concept covered in the maths syllabus and IMC sample papers. 

To be eligible for this Olympiad, students must go through multiple math test preparations to get a complete command of all the mathematical units. In addition, they are also needed to stay informed about all the changes that happened to the Maths Olympiad syllabus and Maths Olympiad schedule of the examination.

Start Early

Early preparation for the Olympiad is important for aspirants who are sincere about passing this International Maths Olympiad exam. Students who begin early preparation get a longer time to resolve multiple questions which assists them in increasing their speed and success rate.

Get Expert Guidance

Your trainer plays an important role in helping and guiding you all over the maths preparation process and solving IMOC Test Practice Papers. Therefore, you must seek help from the best tutor available. Many online platforms provide extraordinarily qualified and trained trainers who deeply explain every concept and clarify all the problems of students and the International Maths Olympiad is one of them.

Know Your Syllabus

Before collecting study resources and guides for IMO preparation, you must look at the syllabus thoroughly. You can get help from your school tutors and family members who are preparing for the maths Olympiad to make sure you are not losing any topic. You can also get trusted sources online.

Track Your Progress

Solving IMO sample papers and attempting maths tests often are an immensely important part of preparing for the International Maths Olympiad. While maths Olympiad preparation, aspirants need to take notes of important concepts and formulas, which are effective for revision before appearing for the exam. Making note cards is another technique for doing quick revisions. These notes have small highlights related to a math topic which is important for remembering a learned concept. 

Mathematics is a subject where small blunders like decimals, brackets, usage of mathematical symbols, etc., transform the complete solution. Therefore, students must pay close attention and prevent making these mistakes to enhance their accuracy rate.

Take Out Time to Relax

Constant study without any interruptions can be unfavorable in sustaining your preparation for a long time. Therefore, maths Olympiad aspirants are advised to maintain taking small breaks during their preparation and studies. Short breaks are supportive to freshen up the mind, which enhances concentration ability. Along with taking a break from preparation, students also have to follow a healthy living lifestyle that incorporates following a proper diet, daily exercise, meditation, and getting hydrated.


The IMOC is the most advanced and challenging competition in the world. Students need to begin early Olympiad preparation to accomplish all the syllabus concepts. However, students have to appear in this competition to gain experience instead of just focusing on achieving it. The experience acquired in the Olympiad assists them in keeping a positive attitude toward achieving all their success in life.

Effective Ways to Enhance Your Kids Math Skills at Home

As we are near the start of a new session, it’s essential for students to begin class with more confidence and conviction– especially in math subjects. Math is the subject that children lose the concept and logic on over vacation and often have the most stress about when going back to school. Here are some usual and innovative ways for parents to include math excitingly at home to reduce their child’s burden about math class, progress familiarity, and learn through fun.

Geometry is one of the most approachable subjects to exercise at home. Different shapes, measurements, and angles are all around us — there are a plethora of methods to use geometry as a learning opportunity. As a parent, you should try using these effective ways to enhance your kid’s math skills at home-

Play-dough Kit

One of the biggest challenges for math students is working with intellectual concepts, so play-dough is a perfect tool to develop a real knowledge of geometry in a perceptible, tangible, and innovative way

By connecting with the clay and changing it into 2D and 3D shapes, kids are actively learning new shapes, measurements, angles, and differentiation, which ultimately helps them score high in the International Maths Olympiad examination.


Origami is the art of paper folding. A general misconception about math is that it is not an interesting subject. Like play-dough, Origami aids kids to interact substantially with conceptual mathematical concepts and logic while also creating art out of the last product! The practice has been significantly researched as a highly productive teaching equipment for enhancing math learning, overall approach, and confidence towards the maths preparation for International Maths Olympiad. With only a few pieces of wrapping or other flashy paper, kids at home can access a primitive craft that practices a range of geometrical mastery.

Acting out Angles

Substantial movement is a perfect technique to include sensory learning in math subjects. Alike Origami, angles are also a very versatile concept for different ages and assertiveness levels. Try this reclining exercise with your children every morning to wake up the body and understand the concept of the angle at the same time:

Step 1: On a piece of paper, draw a circle and write all angle names around it, including acute, obtuse, straight, right-angle, zero, reflex, and complete.

Step 2: Spin a bottle in the middle of the circle.

Step 3: When it stops, ask your kids to stretch to the angle that the bottle is implying. If they get the same angle more than one time, ask kids to demonstrate it again in a distinct pose.

Geometry Game

An effortless way to display the fun of math learning and maths preparation is with a family game night. Many familiar games and activities can be modified to include geometry for all kid’s age groups:

Charades – Write the names of different shapes on folded pieces of paper, mix them into a bowl and have your kids choose one. Without uttering, they must try to explain their shape by either making shapes using their hands or conveying the word itself. The person who predicts the right shape is next to choose from the bowl.

Geometry Bingo – Depending on the hardness level, draw several 2D/3D shapes and angles on a 3×3 grid and replicate the same for each member. The parent then puts down the same angles and shapes on tags, places them in a container, and shuffles them upwards. Each time the parent pulls out a label, the members must express the angle or shape (without pronouncing the word). When the first player shouts bingo, the parent inspects to see if they correctly identified all the shapes on their card to win.

Final Thoughts

Adding fun and creative practices at home helps to upskill your kids’ ability to perform in maths Olympiads and allows them to experiment with different techniques of learning and develop confidence in their skills. It also shows that learning math subject can be amusing and achieved by any child! Learn more about the maths concept and prepare your kids for the maths Olympiad test only with International Maths Olympiad Challenge.

You can also check the upcoming Maths Olympiad schedule on our website. We are striving hard to provide practical solutions to learn mathematics for students around the world.

Five Ways to Reduce Math Anxiety in Kids: What Parents Can Do

Primary school is where it begins. This is when kids normally get introduced to math learning and when math uneasiness takes root repeatedly. Some children find math challenging yet exciting, while some find it extremely strenuous. They might feel distressed about not getting the answers correctly, or not keeping up with their levels of what the trainer or teacher is explaining.  

When kids don’t improve math learning skills at an early age, they tend to grow stress levels while doing math questions. This anxiety develops as they proceed through school and, due to the progressive structure of math, they go down further and further at the back. This generally results in hating the subject. Lack of skills and confidence in maths subjects can lead to self-hesitancy and not only below-par performance in math, but in other subjects as well.

Children who are anxious about math are expected to avoid it, which embellish a further barrier to studying math. Instead of being anxious, students should look for IMO sample papers and practice hard to participate in the International Maths Challenge and gain confidence.

Parents can play a key role in guiding to lessen their kids’ stress levels about math and develop their confidence and belief. It begins with encouraging children to learn and practice math and providing support at home. Moreover, by making Math playful and exciting at home, parents can remove negative discussions about math assignments and assure their kids to adopt a positive approach towards solving it, helping them recover their excitement and interest to learn more and grow their skills.

Some effective ways parents can reduce their kid’s math anxiety

Make math interesting at home by arranging math games and quizzes and engaging your child in math-related works around the house. 

Be up to date on your connection and viewpoint toward math. Did you know that math anxiety can be infectious? The study has shown that parents can transfer their burden and stress about math to their kids, which can lead to bad performance and marks for your kid at school. Remember that you’re not manifesting negative feelings in front of your kid. Try to develop a positive, cool attitude in front of your child. 

Reach out to your kid’s school and meet teachers to discuss how you can help your child’s math learning skills at home. There are many assets out there, including IMO sample papers by International Maths Challenge for kids to help them practice the maths concepts they’re learning at school. Ask the teacher to suggest an excellent productive resource where your kid is at in their learning. A resource that is too tough to understand can create anxiety and more hesitation!

Enhance your math skills before giving attention to your child. Use resources and IMO sample papers and practice doing math questions. Communicate with your child in a comforting, positive way about math and have daily discussions about their recent math challenges and small successes that can take them to greater heights. Help them realize that mistakes are not the end; learning opportunities are limitless.

IMC (International Maths Challenge) offers a curriculum-specific student assessment & practice resource that is created by International Maths Olympiad experts on how your children learn best and efficiently. Don’t get distracted by any usual black-and-white practice books. For more information about the maths practice, visit our website.

Tips to Improve Your Child’s Learning Skills

All kids are different and live with different skills and interests. Some kids are good at studies and some at sports, but no one can be good at everything. Many kids are good at mathematics, but many kids find maths a little confusing & challenging. There will be no other option for kids to skip this learning period; every kid has to learn all these subjects. Parents and teachers help their kids or students to learn these subjects with ease but there are a lot of ways by which students can easily enjoy these boring activities and enhance their learning skills.

Some of the ways to improve your child’s learning skills and abilities-

Visual Techniques

It’s a compelling technique to improve your kid’s learning skills. Generally, visual learners learn things by seeing what they are reading or writing. You should also provide your kid with all the tools and resources so they can learn hands-on. According to research, if kids have food like raisins or marshmallows on a daily basis, it can help them easily solve Maths Olympiad problems like addition or subtraction. This technique for addition or subtraction visually can upgrade your child’s understanding of maths skills and allow the child to become engaged in the process.

International Maths Olympiad Registration

Further, you can also register for the maths olympiad to enhance your child’s skills. These maths tests will help the child to build a positive perception regarding different subjects and enable them to think logically and achieve well in different phases of life.

Let them choose

One of the best ways for your kid to get engrossed in their studies is to let them choose their material and resources. They won’t even need to insist when they are already interested. It will be interesting for them, so they will pick up study material and read on their own. If you want your kid to solve IMO sample papers independently, you should first create interest. Allow them to pick books and find stories they can imagine.

Give them a reading book

All the kids need to know how to read, which is necessary for other learning activities. To improve a child’s performance, you should put a reading book in their room or motivate them to read books using the visualization technique. This will encourage them to read and solve IMO sample papers easily.

Create Environment

It’s essential to give them a clean and quiet environment to study so that they can give their complete focus without any distractions. Do they have proper space for books, computers, or laptops? Also, give them the required resources, like school supplies, folders, and International Maths Olympiad sample papers. So they don’t need to get up in the middle of their studies.

Allow them to ask for doubts

Your kid must feel free to ask you anything that they want. They should not hesitate to ask and provide them comfort so they can ask easily. Suppose they have any doubts in a lesson, you will be there and you should always be available for their help. This thing can also assist them to ask in their class without any hesitation.

Studying and preparing for the maths Olympiad will enhance students’ logical reasoning and thinking abilities and make them move toward strong career opportunities. If you are confused about participating in the International Maths Challenge, we are here to guide you at every step of your success. Click here to raise your query.